Volleyball

This position does not have unique rules like the libero position, instead, these players are used to substitute out a poor back row defender using regular substitution rules. No accomodation is made for your feet sinking in the sand. In addition to the setters, a typical lineup will have two middle hitters and two outside hitters. The libero is, generally, the most skilled defensive player on the team. Navigation menu

What Is the Height of a Volleyball Net?

What Is the Regulation Height of a High School Basketball Hoop?

Events for women ages 60 and over are permitted to lower the net to 7 feet. Boys and girls ages is 7 feet. The lone difference is for youth 10 and under, as the boys will use a net that is 7 feet, while the girls can use a 6-foot, 6-inch net. USA Volleyball allows additional net reductions for youth programs of two through four players per team, stating the net height may be lowered to 5 or 6 feet for younger players.

There are minor adjustments allowed for players 14 and under, as well as 12 and under. The net height measurement is taken at the sand-raked level.

The net height measurement is taken from the ground, as opposed to the top of the grass blades. Video of the Day. Basketball Net Height Regulations. Official Badminton Net Height. Rules for Junior High Volleyball. Tennis Net Height Rules. How to Recurve a Composite Hockey Stick. How to Make a Volleyball Spike Trainer. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in , played at the International YMCA Training School now called Springfield College , the game quickly became known as volleyball it was originally spelled as two words: The first official ball used in volleyball is disputed; some sources say Spalding created the first official ball in , while others claim it was created in In , the game was changed from requiring 21 points to win to a smaller 15 points to win.

In , about 16, volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies , which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries. The first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in Beach volleyball , a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in and was added to the Olympic program at the Summer Olympics.

Nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late s. Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women consistently since This "3 meter" or "foot" line divides the court into "back row" and "front row" areas also back court and front court.

After a team gains the serve also known as siding out , its members must rotate in a clockwise direction, with the player previously in area "2" moving to area "1" and so on, with the player from area "1" moving to area "6". The team courts are surrounded by an area called the free zone which is a minimum of 3 meters wide and which the players may enter and play within after the service of the ball.

If a ball comes in contact with the line, the ball is considered to be "in". An antenna is placed on each side of the net perpendicular to the sideline and is a vertical extension of the side boundary of the court. A ball passing over the net must pass completely between the antennae or their theoretical extensions to the ceiling without contacting them. Each team consists of six players. A player from the serving team throws the ball into the air and attempts to hit the ball so it passes over the net on a course such that it will land in the opposing team's court the serve.

The team on defense attempts to prevent the attacker from directing the ball into their court: After a successful dig, the team transitions to offense. The game continues in this manner, rallying back and forth, until the ball touches the court within the boundaries or until an error is made. Players may travel well outside the court to play a ball that has gone over a sideline or end-line in the air.

Other common errors include a player touching the ball twice in succession, a player "catching" the ball, a player touching the net while attempting to play the ball, or a player penetrating under the net into the opponent's court.

There are a large number of other errors specified in the rules, although most of them are infrequent occurrences. These errors include back-row or libero players spiking the ball or blocking back-row players may spike the ball if they jump from behind the attack line , players not being in the correct position when the ball is served, attacking the serve in the front court and above the height of the net, using another player as a source of support to reach the ball, stepping over the back boundary line when serving, taking more than 8 seconds to serve, [18] or playing the ball when it is above the opponent's court.

When the ball contacts the floor within the court boundaries or an error is made, the team that did not make the error is awarded a point, whether they served the ball or not. If the ball hits the line, the ball is counted as in. The team that won the point serves for the next point.

If the team that won the point served in the previous point, the same player serves again. If the team that won the point did not serve the previous point, the players of the serving team rotate their position on the court in a clockwise manner. The game continues, with the first team to score 25 points by a two-point margin awarded the set. Matches are best-of-five sets and the fifth set, if necessary, is usually played to 15 points.

Scoring differs between leagues, tournaments, and levels; high schools sometimes play best-of-three to 25; in the NCAA matches are played best-of-five to 25 as of the season. Before , points could be scored only when a team had the serve side-out scoring and all sets went up to only 15 points. The FIVB changed the rules in with the changes being compulsory in to use the current scoring system formerly known as rally point system , primarily to make the length of the match more predictable and to make the game more spectator- and television-friendly.

Rally point scoring debuted in , [20] and games were played to 30 points through For the season, games were renamed "sets" and reduced to 25 points to win. Most high schools in the U. The libero player was introduced internationally in , [25] and made its debut for NCAA competition in When the ball is not in play, the libero can replace any back-row player, without prior notice to the officials.

This replacement does not count against the substitution limit each team is allowed per set, although the libero may be replaced only by the player whom he or she replaced. The libero may function as a setter only under certain restrictions. An underhand pass is allowed from any part of the court. The libero is, generally, the most skilled defensive player on the team. There is also a libero tracking sheet, where the referees or officiating team must keep track of whom the libero subs in and out for.

There may only be one libero per set game , although there may be a different libero in the beginning of any new set game. Furthermore, a libero is not allowed to serve, according to international rules, with the exception of the NCAA women's volleyball games, where a rule change allows the libero to serve, but only in a specific rotation. That is, the libero can only serve for one person, not for all of the people for whom she goes in.

That rule change was also applied to high school and junior high play soon after. Other rule changes enacted in include allowing serves in which the ball touches the net, as long as it goes over the net into the opponents' court. Also, the service area was expanded to allow players to serve from anywhere behind the end line but still within the theoretical extension of the sidelines.

Other changes were made to lighten up calls on faults for carries and double-touches, such as allowing multiple contacts by a single player "double-hits" on a team's first contact provided that they are a part of a single play on the ball. In , the NCAA changed the minimum number of points needed to win any of the first four sets from 30 to 25 for women's volleyball men's volleyball remained at 30 for another 3 years, switching to 25 in If a fifth deciding set is reached, the minimum required score remains at In addition, the word "game" is now referred to as "set".

Changes in rules have been studied and announced by the FIVB in recent years, and they have released the updated rules in Competitive teams master six basic skills: A player stands behind the inline and serves the ball, in an attempt to drive it into the opponent's court.

The main objective is to make it land inside the court; it is also desirable to set the ball's direction, speed and acceleration so that it becomes difficult for the receiver to handle it properly. Also called reception, the pass is the attempt by a team to properly handle the opponent's serve, or any form of attack. Proper handling includes not only preventing the ball from touching the court, but also making it reach the position where the setter is standing quickly and precisely.

The skill of passing involves fundamentally two specific techniques: The set is usually the second contact that a team makes with the ball.

As with passing, one may distinguish between an overhand and a bump set. Since the former allows for more control over the speed and direction of the ball, the bump is used only when the ball is so low it cannot be properly handled with fingertips, or in beach volleyball where rules regulating overhand setting are more stringent. In the case of a set, one also speaks of a front or back set, meaning whether the ball is passed in the direction the setter is facing or behind the setter.

There is also a jump set that is used when the ball is too close to the net. In this case the setter usually jumps off his or her right foot straight up to avoid going into the net. Sometimes a setter refrains from raising the ball for a teammate to perform an attack and tries to play it directly onto the opponent's court.

This movement is called a "dump". The most common dumps are to 'throw' the ball behind the setter or in front of the setter to zones 2 and 4.

More experienced setters toss the ball into the deep corners or spike the ball on the second hit. The attack, also known as the spike , is usually the third contact a team makes with the ball.

Ideally the contact with the ball is made at the apex of the hitter's jump. At the moment of contact, the hitter's arm is fully extended above his or her head and slightly forward, making the highest possible contact while maintaining the ability to deliver a powerful hit. The hitter uses arm swing, wrist snap, and a rapid forward contraction of the entire body to drive the ball. A "kill" is the slang term for an attack that is not returned by the other team thus resulting in a point.

Blocking refers to the actions taken by players standing at the net to stop or alter an opponent's attack. A block that is aimed at completely stopping an attack, thus making the ball remain in the opponent's court, is called offensive.

A well-executed offensive block is performed by jumping and reaching to penetrate with one's arms and hands over the net and into the opponent's area. The jump should be timed so as to intercept the ball's trajectory prior to it crossing over the net. Palms are held deflected downward roughly 45—60 degrees toward the interior of the opponents court.

A "roof" is a spectacular offensive block that redirects the power and speed of the attack straight down to the attacker's floor, as if the attacker hit the ball into the underside of a peaked house roof. By contrast, it is called a defensive, or "soft" block if the goal is to control and deflect the hard-driven ball up so that it slows down and becomes easier to defend. A well-executed soft-block is performed by jumping and placing one's hands above the net with no penetration into the opponent's court and with the palms up and fingers pointing backward.

Blocking is also classified according to the number of players involved. Thus, one may speak of single or solo , double, or triple block. Successful blocking does not always result in a "roof" and many times does not even touch the ball. While it's obvious that a block was a success when the attacker is roofed, a block that consistently forces the attacker away from his or her 'power' or preferred attack into a more easily controlled shot by the defense is also a highly successful block.

At the same time, the block position influences the positions where other defenders place themselves while opponent hitters are spiking. Digging is the ability to prevent the ball from touching one's court after a spike or attack, particularly a ball that is nearly touching the ground.

It is especially important while digging for players to stay on their toes; several players choose to employ a split step to make sure they're ready to move in any direction.

Some specific techniques are more common in digging than in passing. A player may sometimes perform a "dive", i. When the player also slides his or her hand under a ball that is almost touching the court, this is called a "pancake".

The pancake is frequently used in indoor volleyball, but rarely if ever in beach volleyball because the uneven and yielding nature of the sand court limits the chances that the ball will make a good, clean contact with the hand.

When used correctly, it is one of the more spectacular defensive volleyball plays. Sometimes a player may also be forced to drop his or her body quickly to the floor to save the ball.

In this situation, the player makes use of a specific rolling technique to minimize the chances of injuries. Volleyball is essentially a game of transition from one of the above skills to the next, with choreographed team movement between plays on the ball. These team movements are determined by the teams chosen serve receive system, offensive system, coverage system, and defensive system.

The serve-receive system is the formation used by the receiving team to attempt to pass the ball to the designated setter. Systems can consist of 5 receivers, 4 receivers, 3 receivers, and in some cases 2 receivers. The most popular formation at higher levels is a 3 receiver formation consisting of two left sides and a libero receiving every rotation.

This allows middles and right sides to become more specialized at hitting and blocking. Offensive systems are the formations used by the offense to attempt to ground the ball into the opposing court or otherwise score points. Formations often include designated player positions with skill specialization see Player specialization , below. Popular formations include the , , and systems see Formations , below.

There are also several different attacking schemes teams can use to keep the opposing defense off balance. Coverage systems are the formations used by the offense to protect their court in the case of a blocked attack. Executed by the 5 offensive players not directly attacking the ball, players move to assigned positions around the attacker to dig up any ball that deflects off the block back into their own court.

Popular formations include the system and the system. In lieu of a system, some teams just use a random coverage with the players nearest the hitter. Defensive systems are the formations used by the defense to protect against the ball being grounded into their court by the opposing team. The system will outline which players are responsible for which areas of the court depending on where the opposing team is attacking from. There are also several different blocking schemes teams can employ to disrupt the opposing teams offense.

When one player is ready to serve, some teams will line up their other five players in a screen to obscure the view of the receiving team. This action is only illegal if the server makes use of the screen, so the call is made at the referee's discretion as to the impact the screen made on the receiving team's ability to pass the ball. The most common style of screening involves a W formation designed to take up as much horizontal space as possible.